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D is pronounced like the English d, except when found be- tween two vowels or at the end of words, when it sounds softer than the English d, like th in the article the, but not like th lisped, as in thin, as Madrid like the , not Madriz like thin ; TJsterf like the , not Ustez like thin. This lisped proAunciation on the d is considered vulgar.
Q has two distinct sounds : one, before a, 0, u, or a conso- nant, is the same sound as in English go, good; as, goto, grar cias: before e and i it has another strong, guttural, aspirated sound, for which the English has no equivalent, and which even a very strongly aspirated A, as in the words hot, holy, does not represent ; as, gente, people ; gesto, gesture ; gigarUe, giant. H is never pronounced in the Spanish language ; as, hace, higo, pronounced as if no such h were there.
Peça-me o que quiser e eu te darei
It is, properly speaking, only a sign used to mark the etymology of words, and is now omitted in many words in which it was formerly used ; as, Cristo, lUosqfla, Teatro, Pitfgoras, Mtadeffia. This letter is always written before the words that begin by we and ie, and here it has a very soft, almost imperceptible, aspiration ; as, huevo, egg; hueso, bone; huisped, guest; hierro, iron ; hielo, ice : but great care must be taken not to pronounce it too strong, as the lower classes of certain provinces do, pro- nouncing juevo, or guevo;jueso, or gUeso, which is considered vulgar.
J has always an aspirated guttural sound, like that which the g has before e and i, and is written before the vowels a, o, u y instead of the letter x, which formerly represented the same aspirated sound ; as, Alejandro, Alexander ; Don Quijote, Don Quixote. LL is, like the ch, a single letter, although of double form, which therefore cannot be divided at the end of a line. Q is pronounced like the English k before ue and ui, in which combination alone it is now used ; in all other positions it has been replaced by c ; as, euando, cama, comer, quien, guerer.
R, when single, is sounded soft, as in English; as, querido, oro: and when double, or at the beginning of a word, and when it comes after I, n, or 8, or in compound words, in which the second begins by r, it is pronounced with a very strong rolling sound; as, reloj, mcUrotar, tnriquecer, Israel, prerogati- va, maniroto, cariredondo, Ac.
S is pronounced like the English s in say ; as, sabio, wise ; solo, alone ; sefior, sir. T is pronounced as in English.
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V has the sound ofHhe English v. See letter 2?. Xxi X has the sound of the z in the English word tax; as, exdmen, extrangero. It no longer represents its former guttu- ral sound, as has been observed. See letter J.
The grammar of the Span- ish Academy does not authorize this practice. When used in its proper place, that is to say, as a conso- nant, it has the same sound in Spanish as in the English words young, year. Z has always the sound of th, as heard in thank, bath. Such syllables only will be noted here as may be subject to doubt as to the pronunciation and orthography. CO, id. ZSL, tliah. Thifi sound cannot be yi- yo. See letter T. You gave. You see. Debt to, u gracio, grah'-th8-a. You are. Hi, u ruido, roo-e'-do.
Words that end in a vowel are accented on the penultimate ; as, banco, bench ; tnesa, table ; libro, book. Of course we need not put any written accent on the last syllable, when it ends in a consonant ; nor on the next to the last, when it ends in a vowel, because the fact of ending in any of these letters is a sufficient mark where to lay the stress of the voice. Monosyllables having only one signification are never ac- cented ; as, pan, mal. The vowels d, e, 6, tf, when used alone are always accented.
The employment of the written accent in the verbs is now generally confined to the first and third persons singular, and first person plural of the perfect indicative, and every person of the future indicative. The marks are the same as in English, and are similarly applied, excepting those of interrogation and exclamation, which both precede and succeed the sentence; the former it should be remarked are inverted, — Ex.
To speak. Yo habl-o. Tu habl-as. I speak. Thou speakest.
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He or she speaks. You speak. Nosotros, or , , , EHos, or elks, habl-an. Ustedes Yds. We speak. They speak. Si adverb. No " Sefior. No, or not Sir.. Si, sefior, yo hablo. Do you apeak? No, sefior, ellas hablan.
I Hablais vosotraa? No, sefior, ellos hablan.
No, sefior, ella no habla. No, sefior, el habla. Si, sefior, hablo.
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Nosotras no hablamos. No, sir, they speak.
Do you speak? Does she speak? No, sir, she does not speak. Dost thou speak? No, sir, he speaks. Yes, sir, I speak. Do they speak? No, sir, they do not speak. Do we speak? Yes, sir, we speak. We do not speak. Regulab Vebbs. Consequently, when the student has learned how to conju- gate one of the regular verbs of each conjugation, he can con- jugate all the regular verbs of the Spanish language about 8, For this reason we recommend the scholars to devote their attention, in the first place, to committing to memory the different moods and tenses of these three model verbs.
They will be found complete at the end of the book. The terminations of the verbs being different for each per- son, as well in the plural as in the singular number, the nomina- tive pronouns are ordinarily dispensed with, and are only used LESSON I. Hablan ollas? Si, sefior, ellos hablan. No, sefior; ellos hablan. Hablamos nosotras?
No, sefior ; ella habla. Hablais vosotros? No, sefior, no habla. Hablas tu? Si, sefior, nosotras hablamos. Hablo yo? Si, sefior, V. Habla 61?